- Islamic Methodology in History by Fazlur Rahman (Chapter 1: Concepts of Sunnah, Ijtihād and Ijmā‘ in the Early Period & Chapter 2: Sunnah and Hadith)
- Maqasid al Shariah: The Objectives of Islamic Law
- Legal Maxims in Islamic Jurisprudence
- An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments (On Logical Fallacies)
- Review of “Islam in the Modern World: by S. Hossein Nasr” by Zachary Markwith
- “Traditional Islam in the Modern World” by Seyyed Hossein Nasr
- Scott Lucas, “The ṣaḥāba in Classical Muslim Theory and Practice” Constructive Critics (Leiden: 2004), p. 221-85
- Tayeb El-Hibri, Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History: The Rashidun Caliphs. (New York: 2010).
- Wilferd Madelung Succession to Muhammad. (Cambridge: 1997).
- Patricia Crone. God’s Rule. (New York: 2004).
- Hugh Kennedy. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. (London 1991).
- Fred M. Donner. Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing. (Princeton: 1998).
- Tarif Khalidi. Arabic Historical Thought in the Classical Period. (Cambridge: 1994).
- Patricia Crone and Martin Hinds. God’s Caliph (Cambridge:1986).
- Hossein Modarressi “The legal basis for the validity of the majority opinion in Islamic legislation” and Khaled Abou El-Fadl “Democracy in Islamic law” in Under Seige: Islam and Democracy. ed. Richard Bulliet. (New York: 1994).
- Khaled Abou El Fadl. The Great Theft : Wrestling Islam From the Extremists. (New York: 2005).
- Ja‘far Subhānī. Wahhabism. (1996).
- Muhammad b. `Alawi al-Maliki al-Hasani. Notions That Must Be Corrected. (2008).
- Seyyed Yusuf al-Rifa’i. Advice to Our Brothers The Scholars of Najd. (Damascus, 2002). [A summary of complaints regarding Saudi religious culture and its establishment].
- Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Sufi Essays. (Albany: 1973).
- Ibrahim ash-Shaghouri. The Defense of the Sunnah: An Analysis of the Theory and Practices of Tasawwuf. (2009). [A guide to practices associated with Sufism and their proof-texts].
- Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi’i Islam. (New Haven: 1985).
- Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. A Shi’ite Encyclopedia [An online encyclopedia answering questions about Shi’ism]
- Jonathan Brown “The Transmission and Collection of Prophetic Traditions” Hadith: Muhammad’s Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. (Oxford: 2009), p. 15-66.
- —. “The Authenticity Question: Western Debates Over the Reliability of Hadith” 197-275.
Michael Cook “Ibn Qutayba and the Monkeys” Studia Islamica No. 89 (1999), pp. 43-74. [An analysis of the concept of metamorphosis (of humans into animals) and the report of Bukhārī “I saw a monkey in the pre-Islamic era surrounded by a swarm of other monkeys. It had committed adultery, so the monkeys began stoning it, and I joined in the stoning too.”]
- Yasin T. al-Jibouri “Abu Hurayra and the Falsification of Hadith“
- What are Isra’iliyyāt? Israiliyyat notes
- Wael Hallaq. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. (Cambridge: 2005).
- Michael Cook, “Magian Cheese: An Archaic Problem in Islamic Law,” BSOAS Al (1984), pp. 449-67.
- –. “Early Islamic Dietary Law,” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 7, 1986, pp. 217-77.
- Patricia Crone. Roman, Provincial, and Islamic Law : The Origins of the Islamic Patronate. (Cambridge: 1987).
- Wael Hallaq. “The Use and Abuse of Evidence: The Question of Provincial and Roman Influences on Early Islamic Law.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 110.1 (1990): 79-91.
- Khaled Abou El Fadl. Speaking in God’s Name : Islamic Law, Authority and Women. (Oxford: 2001).
- Omid Safi. Progressive Muslims : On Justice, Gender and Pluralism. (Oxford: 2003).
- Abdulkarim Soroush. The Expansion of Prophetic Experience Essays on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in Religion. (Leiden: 2009).
- Junaid Bin Jahangir “Considering same sex unions in Islamic law” in Islam and Homosexuality, Vol. 2. ed. Samar Habib. (Santa Barbara: 2010).
- Paula Sanders, “Gendering the Ungendered Body: Hermaphrodites in Medieval Islamic Law,” in Women in Middle Eastern History, ed. Nikki Keddie and Beth Baron (New Haven: 1991).
On Functional Illiteracy, Power, and Junk Politics
- Chris Hedges. Empire of Illusion. (New York: 2009), excerpts.
- Yahya Michot “Revelation” The Cambridge Companion to Islamic Theology (Cambridge: 2008), p. 180-96.
On The Household of the Prophet
- The History of al-Tabari. Vol.1-40. (New York: SUNY Press, 1989-1999).
- Arzina Lalani. Early Shīʿī Thought : The Teachings of Imam Muḥammad Al-Bāqir. (London: 2000)
- Syed HM Jafri. The Origins and Early Development of Shiʻa Islam. (Oxford Univ. Press, 2000). [a well written English narrative of early Alid history through pro-Alid Sunni and early Shi’i lenses].
- Kazuo Morimoto. Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies. (London: 2012).